The aim of this study is to contribute to the development of Czechoslovak pedagogy by summing up the results of sociological researches in relation to the materialistic conception of education so that after clearing up these basis questions a Marxist sociologico-pedagogical system of education may gradually be formed. With this aim in view the author works out in the first three chapters the problems regarding the relationship of pedagogy to sociology, and by means of the historico-comparative method he analyses the development of views on the integration and differentiation of sociological and pedagogical ideas. As regards the relationship of social pedagogy to sociological pedagogy, he draws attention to the material and, above all, to the methodological standpoints of both these sciences, which do not allow social pedagogy to be identified with sociological pedagogy. In the same way pedagogical sociology is to be developed, according to the author, as a special branch of sociology, as a borderline science between sociology and pedagogy, which is an important ancillary science of pedagogy. In analysing the relationship of pedagogical sociology to the sociology of education the author agrees with the opinion that these are two stages of development of a single scientific field and therefore defines pedagogical sociology as sociology of education. In the concluding chapter the author characterises the area of scientific research which is the subject of pedagogical sociology conceived the Marxist way, which he defines as a theoretical science of the social function of education, of the spontaneous educational I formative influence of society, of the mutual functional shaping of its members and institutions. At the end of the chapter the author answers the question as to whether pedagogy can be a sociological science and enlarges upon the relationship of materialistic sociology of education to the Marxist philosophy. He comes to the conclusion that materialistic pedagogical sociology cannot be formed and cannot even develop without Marxist philosophy; only the utilisation thereof will create the pre requisites for a philosophical mastery of the scientifically acquired quantitative data. However, the target science of materialistic education continues to be the Marxist pedagogy.