This article raises several questions regarding the solution of some problems which are shared in common by pedagogy and philosophy. On the borderline between these two sciences there has recently been a revival as a result of the development of Marxist philosophical anthropology. Foremost among the significant problems which are now being investigated from new viewpoints is that of the substance of education. The author believes that this problem can be successfully tackled only against the background of the objective process of the overall moulding of man. Objective laws governing this process are being consciously used in education so that the concrete man in unison with his environment may develop in the direction required. The author takes a critical view of education being defined as a decisive factor in the development of man (taking into account heredity and environment). Education can have a decisive influence only under certain conditions. These conditions include, above all, activity of the people who are being moulded. Educational influence is entangled in a network of diverse contradictions between internal and external factors, biological and social factors, etc. In the course of attaining educational aims conflicts cannot be avoided. In this case pedagogy would need to be told by philosophy more about the relationship between spontaneity - and consciousness in the development of the individual. In solving conflicts education is to overcome the pressure of immediacy and thus to clear the way for man’s development in the desired manner. The author also deals with the question of the relationship of the so-called intentional and functional educational influence. He agrees with the representatives of existentialist pedagogy as regards the# fact that education should not be reduce to intentional influence. As regards the functional influence, this question is not quite clear. The author is of the opinion that the point is to make education influence man not only directly, but also to make it help create conditions for the desired development of the man who is being educated. However, as one of the factors creating these conditions is the latter man himself, it is an important task of education to draw the man and the group in which he is being educated into the framework of a progressive social movement. But the existentialist pedagogy rejects this solution. In conclusion there is a remark about the broader conception of education having its methodological consequences. The differences between individual pedagogical trends are not so much in the concrete methods of research, but in the general method of investigating educational reality; in Marxist pedagogy such a method is dialectics. Dialectics requires an all-round and concrete manner of approach to the reality under investigation. And above all it demands that educational problems be tackled and investigated from the viewpoint of the historic road of mankind for the human emancipation of every man.