In his theoretical study based on original experimental results the author deals with questions of relationships between learning, creative activities and heuristics. He sees basic general moments of creative activities in learning by solving problems. From this point of view the author makes an analysis of the structure of the learning process and reveals the following fundamental components of problem solving and heuristic processes: a) synthetic processes connected with psychical integration, anticipation and aim regulation; b) creation and verification of strategies (he mentions special kinds of strategies), he analyses the relationship of strategy to the sets and formation of hypotheses; c) he explains learning from the viewpoint of decision-making processes and he gives methods of studying learning processes from this viewpoint; d) learning while solving problems results in mastering a method as a generalised and stabilised optimal strategy; e) from these viewpoints the author points out the basic moments in determining the criteria of the effectiveness of the learning process. As attempt is made in this study at a synthesis of viewpoints being elaborated by the reflex theory, behaviourism and form psychology on the basis of dialectical materialism. At the same time this paper contributes to a theoretical elucidation of basic as well as applied aspects of the problems in question.