After a brief description of Blonsky’s life and pedagogical work, the article deals with an analysis of his pedagogical ideas. Even before the October Revolution Blonsky arrived at the idea of school being dependent on the social order and from an historical analysis he deduced the characteristics of school in the communist society. His idea of an industrial labour school draws on both the reformist tendencies in bourgeois pedagogy and on Marx’s demand for all-round education. But in contrast to bourgeois conceptions Blonsky stresses the educational significance of modern industry. Blonsky’s primary labour school is placed in nature, where the teacher experiences with the children in a shortened form the development from primitivism to civilisation. Secondary labour school is fully incorporated in social life and in production. Here too, the principal educational medium is the factory. The failure of the Soviet industrial labour school promoted by Blonsky was due to the contradiction between the backwardness of the Russian reality after the October Revolution and the idea of an industrial labour school, which corresponded to a far higher stage of social development. This, however, does not impair the correctness of Blonsky’s ideas. Another part of the study deals with Blonsky’s pedagogical system and his endeavour to elaborate pedology as a science about the child. In pedology it evaluates his endeavour to get over biologism by paying increased attention to the social aspects of the child’s development. In conclusion Blonsky is appraised as a Soviet Marxist educationist of world outlook, who, in moulding Marxist pedagogy and communist education, drew on the best results achieved by bourgeois science.