Two questions are of great importance for the development of the theory and practice of after-school education provided by school clubs and schools with all day care: 1. The definition of the position of after-school education as one of the forms of the educational process. Above all, it is a matter of pointing out its specific features with regard to the other forms, and, especially, of finding out basic relationships between after-school education and classroom instruction. The present stage of development in this educational field calls for a definition of the theory of after-school education as a subject and an elaboration of its structure substantiated by logical reasons. 2. An elaboration of the basic conception of the subject-matter of after school education, as there is a great difference of opinion regarding both its theory and practice. In working out the concrete subject-matter the following sources may serve as a basis: the requirements of the educational system of the Pioneer (Children’s) Organisation of the Czechoslovak Union of Youth, the uniform syllabus for P. T., the syllabus for educational work, the requirements for awarding individual ≫badges≪ and the school curriculum. The result of the elaboration must be a well-thought out system of afterschool education, which will, in a decisive manner, promote an all-round development of the pupils. Further qualitative development of after-school education in school clubs and schools with all-day care is conditioned by the elaboration of a scientific theory of after-school education as well as by a theoretical elaboration and realisation of the subject matter of after-school education in practice.