This article is a response to the present day objective need for a speedy development of educational theory and tries to make a deeper analysis of communist education as a system. In the first part of the article the author explains what is meant by the system of communist education and follows the dialectics of relationships between the subject and the object of education on a horizontal level. He further follows the dialectics of the aims and means of education, and finally the dialectics of complex and partial, primary and secondary, tasks of communist education. He pays special attention to those questions that have so far been neglected in domestic as well as foreign literature and points out the problems which educational theory will have to solve rapidly (adult education, modernisation of instruction and raising the effectiveness of the educational process, mutual correlations of various components of education and the like. In the second part the author deals with the changes in the development of the system of communist education in connection with the transition from a lower phase of communist formation to a higher one — iron socialism to communism. He shows how the subject and the object of education gradually change and how these facts make themselves felt in laying down the aims of communist education, in selecting the means of education as well as in solving primary and secondary, complex and partial, educational tasks. In this part, tos, the author dwells upon some problems hitherto neglected in educational science, and indicates the trend to be followed by further theoretical work. Some of the problems, especially those referred to in footnotes, are formulated in such a way as to stimulate discussion and a further exchange of opinions. In concession he stresses the necessity to pass on to a large-scale conceptional solution of the most important questions of communist education on a scientific basis, in which the greatest possible number of schoolteachers should co-operate with educationists-theoreticians, and he underlines the significance of teachers' research work for i, — proving the quality of classroom practice.