On the basis of searching after more precise methodological approaches than the approach of the mancist historiography the author analyses critically the development of educational institutions in Czechoslovakia after the year 1945, and is looking for the reason of their reformation under the communist party politics in Czechoslovakia in the area of the school system. There is a discrepancy between the united school law preparation from 1945 and the preparation of the school law from 1953 in September 1952 at Lány under the chairmanship of K. Gottwald. Then already the relations between politics and education were seriously ill-affected. In the second half of the sixtees and in thé year 1968 these deformations were partly put right. The years 1970—1989 were a period of deformations, and that together with the 1968 ideologists’ persecution. Within this common frame the author deals in more details with individual facts from the area of. the politics-education relations, with the quantity and quality of the reforms as well as the teachers’ in-service education. In T. G. Masaryk’s view politics must be anchored in moral principles. The accidental character masked by the so called scientific bases of marxism is to be excluded and subsided by an ali- -sided scientific analysis of the school system. The study is a stimulation for further studies of this kind.