The study defines the main problems involved in forming a system of educational aims. The aims of education are set forth on the basis of different aspects and at various degrees of generality. Their mutual relationships have not been cleared up sufficiently yet. The system of aims envisages communist education as its final objective. A question which is important for this system is that of the relationship of two viewpoints: the aims set forth from the viewpoint of forms of social existence and consciousness (the so-called material aims) and those resulting from the personality structure of man (the so-called formative aims). The study brings the results of an analysis of some material aims and the aims of the development of perception memory, thinking and emotions; it also informs us how these aims are made concrete in syllabuses. The analysis has shown, among other things, that it is useful to make the aims concrete also by setting down the types of assignments which the pupils are suppressed to be able to cope with in a required manner. At the same time the question has arisen of how to determine the grades of formative aims conditioned by the nature of the subject-matter. The question is to what extent these aims should be made concrete and related to the subject-matter. Sources for the implementation and division of material aims depend on the final educational aim and on the general conception of education. This includes also certain relationships between the material aims and the formative ones, especially in teaching the fundamentals of science. It is a question of penetrating into the method of thinking in scientific fields, and to this end a minimum knowledge of the subject-matter is necessary, not the other way about. Information provides the means for penetrating into logical structures. Both problems, viz. the implementation of educational aims and their division, are connected with other questions.