Page: 285-300 Author: PELCOVÁ, N. Key words: values, education in values, education in evaluation
This essay is devoted to the concept of values and evaluation in philosophy and the humanities. The author takes inspiration from Fink’s critical position and explains the importance of keeping in mind the basic question of what a value is, when in the environment of empirical research in individual social sciences and humanities it is often obscured or entirely ignored.
Entitled Education in Values and Education in Evaluation, the essay is an attempt to formulate basic philosophical starting points for the conception of values. It seeks to show that a value is neither a transcendent entity not a subjective voluntaristic idea, but an interior condition of human thought and action. Education in values does not, then, mean the transmission of a complete thesaurus of socially desirable values, but consists in teaching children to think about values, to hold fast to values, and to cultivate a sense of values.
In the context of history of philosophy the essay presents the objective conception of values (in the tradition of Platonic ontology), the subjective conception of values (in the tradition of Kantian thought) and the transvaluation of all values (in Friedrich Nietzsche), and finally it presents the value as challenge (in Fink’s philosophy of education). In the context of systematic thought on values the essay emphasises the difference between values and norms, and values in the strong and weak sense, and discusses values in the context of social and historical realities.
Education in values is philosophically based on the cultivation of the ability to respect something, to feel honour, and the fundamental premise of education in values is the creation of space for honour and respect, which has to be accepted by both the sides involved, both the educated and the educator.
The final section is devoted to education in evaluation as a tool that enables the pupil not to be helpless in the face of heteronomic evaluation from the side of the teacher. The author sees the space for education in evaluation precisely in those school subjects in which possibilities are created for the development not simply of knowledge and skills but of self-knowledge, self-confidence, self-respect as a precondition for knowing the other and respect for the other.