Comenius elaborated the theory of aids in his Pampaedia. Aids as instrument must be adequate to the activity and to the subject and object of its; in the process of teaching it should help learning the whole and the inner structure of it. For this purpose Comenius elaborated a system of textbooks interrelated continually in content; he supplemented the lingual character by pictures namely this second indication has meant a significant methodical and didactical step since Comenius elaborated also theoretical reasoning for it. Orbis sensualium pictus signifies so the beginning of modern theory of education, it is a prototype of a modern textbook. In contrast to Janua linguarum reserata the interest in Orbis pictus continued also in the eighteenth century. Some aspects of the declining interest in Janua have been evidenced, e. g., by the reserved standpoint of M. Pexenfelder (in the preface to his own text-book of 1680). Concerning the interest in Orbis pictus, gradually, the matter-of-fact aspect predominated, it was especially the content that made Orbis pictus necessary ful textbook of Latin in the concept ofso called „realists, while the emphasis on the teaching of languages made Orbis a textbook for other disciplines. Also in Comenius’s theory of aids, due to his emphasis on the whole (i. e. the pansophic approach), it is possible, namely today, to find stimuli for solving the aspects of the content of education where, until 1970’s, the natural sciences and technique prevailed.