The article tries to show how the concept of Europe is presented in primary schools in the Czech Republic and in France, and to present what what the pupils think about Europe and what they know about it. An educational research survey was conducted in the last classes of Czech and French primary schools during the year 2003 by means of a questionnaire. The questionnaire was based on the study of educational programmes and some of Czech and French textbooks for primary schools. Presentation of Europe in Czech textbooks is not very consistent. There is insufficient information about the common rules and principles of European countries. The textbooks stress geographical facts about each country. French textbooks are focused on the European Union and the role of France in the process of European integration. The results of the research survey are as follows: Czech pupils have better geographical and cultural knowledge about Europe than French pupils. For the majority of Czech pupils Europe is represented as a geographical concept. French pupils see Europe as the European Union.