The article deals with the issue of inequalities in education caused by differences in social parameters of the pupils‘ home environment. Findings in empirical research prove that Czech population of pupils confirms Bernstein‘s hypothesis on the relation between social origin of pupils, the degree of development of their language skills and educational results. Other contemporary research findings (PISA, KALIBRO) prove that pupils‘ educational results are determined by the level of education attained by the parents. Correspondence is shown on the issue between the Czech Republic and Germany, ie. between two countries where educational systems are selective starting already on the level of primary education.