The study characterizes the issue of individualized instruction in education at the level of the lower secondary school. It is conceived as an indivisible and internaly complementary moment towards the principle of unity. It assumes that the term of differentiated, individualized teaching does not comprise only cognitive but also social dimensions of education. A consideration of a particular life situation of the population of pupils and a consideration of specific peculiarities of individual pupils is seen as a necessary condition in implementing of individualized instruction. The study analyzes in more detail the contents of education, methods and organizational forms of instruction as means through which differentiation in the process o f education takes place. Finally, the study emphasizes that qualitative improvement of comprehensive education by means of individualized teaching is a long-term task and one that can only be solved in steps. It assumes the production of particular conditions even for the profession of a teacher. At the same time, the need to develop theoretical and empirical research in the area is emphasized.