A survey study contributing to a more profound understanding of the moral competence of adolescents. First, basic terms are defined. Selected theories of moral development are then outlined (those by J. Piaget, L. Kohlberg, A. Bandura). The study deals with the dual aspect theory by the German G. Lind in more detail. The crux of the study is represented by a discussion of Lind’s method of the „Moral Judgment Tesť*. The method builds on the diagnosis of pros and cons arguments used by the person tested in justifying his/her solution of moral dilemmas. Lind’s theory is significant for educationists as it emphasizes the key role of education and instruction in the development of moral competence in adolescents.