The text is an attempt to make the reader aware of ways of regarding the phenomenon of children’s play from the perspectives o f psychoanalytic theory. Considering the number of various opinions amongst psychoanalytically orientated research ers, the text represents only one of the possible options of an attitude. Children’s play is placed *nto the context of other phenomena which provide a framework in which it is to be understood. The concepts of potential space, the pretend of modes and playfullness are introduced briefly. Children’s game itself is conceived as an immensely important condition of mental development in the framework of psychoanalysis. This has been true since the founding era of psychoanalysis. The ability to play is sometimes considered a condition for mental health. Despite the opportunity to employ one of the worked out systems of structuring the game, the author uses the simplest divison into pre-symbolic game, symbolic game and game with rules. In respect to the focus of this text, games played by adults are left out. Finally, the issue of disorders in the ability to Play is mentioned and some developmental causes that can result in such disorders are outlined.