Page: 5-24 Author: STUCHLÍKOVÁ, I., VOKROJOVÁ, N. Key words: motivation, learning goals, self-determination, competence, Vietnamese students
This overview article attempts to give a brief summary of current approaches to learning motivation and then to focus on the specific features of the learning motivation of Vietnamese pupils. In an outline of motivation theories it first considers the theme of pupil needs and motivations – learning needs and their satisfaction or frustration, with the related states of flow on the one hand and boredom on the other hand, their performance and social needs and related motives for learning. The article goes on to mention learning goals, especially the distinction between the goals of “mastery” (of the study material) and “performance” of school attainment, or avoidance of performance of inadequate school attainment. There is then an account (with brief comments) of the attribute theory of motivation, describing the way in which the causes of good or bad performance are interpreted. Mentioned too is the theory of self-determination, which assumes the activity of the pupil to be optimal if his basic needs for competence and autonomy and his needs for positive social relations are satisfied. The outline of contemporary views of school motivation ends with a brief commentary on what is known as “competence motivation”. In the first part of the text the authors additionally consider the circumstances influencing motivation (gender, social motives, personality and socio-cultural influences…). The second part of the article offers some basic information on Vietnamese immigrants in the Czech Republic and their reasons for migration but above all a basic overview of cultural differences in motivation. One of the possible explanations for these differences is the concept of the interdependent self, which illuminates the close ties with family and feeling of responsibility towards them that is typical of Asians and affects their behaviour. Other important perspectives might be religion and the values arising from it, respect for parents as authority, the attitude of the Vietnamese towards education or approach to education as means to achieve social mobility. In this context we outline the most recent findings in the field of assimilation of the second generations of immigrants. At the end of the article, we look at the gender question in the education of Vietnamese, compare the school results of Vietnamese girls and boys, and offer a concise commentary on their school results in comparison with Czech children.
Prof. PaedDr. Iva Stuchlíková, CSc., University of South Bohemia, Faculty of Education, Department of Pedagogy and Psychology, Jeronýmova 10, 371 15 České Budějovice, Czech Republic, e-mail: email@example.com
Mgr. Nela Vokrojová, University of South Bohemia, Faculty of Education, Department of Pedagogy and Psychology, Jeronýmova 10, 371 15 České Budějovice, Czech Republic, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org