Naive theories are child's interpretations of phenomena which are not in accordance with the scientific knowledge of the world. These interpretations are, however, meaningful for children and they serve him/her as an instrument by help of which the child functions in the world. Two educational approaches are described - one which ignores naive theories of the child, the other one which takes them into consideration. A critical analysis of the first approach is given and description of the instruction which makes use of naive theories is presented. Instruction is defined as an interaction between child's and adult's interpretation of the world.