The study is an important chapter in the evolution of the socialist education and politics in the field of education and the school sy-stems in the international labour movement at the break of the nineteenth and the twentieth centuries, and on the eve of the World War I as well as of the Great October Revolution. The Period of the Second (Social) international is an evidence of struggles of its revolutionary wing with the strenghtening positions of the reformers, which are being transferred even into the schools and educational programmes that are being developed. The beginning of the theory of the School in the socialist conceptions is the question here; those beginnigs lack a more accurate différenciation of demands on the capitalist society and and the demands in the period of building up the socialist society. The programme of the democratization of education is, however, generally of the first importance. The requirements related to the gradual emancipation of the labour class, to the proletarian family education of the youth are formulated more precisely than so far. A comparison with the programme of the Czechoslovak Social Democracy from the year 1900 is carried out. Attention is drawn to the so far unknown study about J. A. Comenius in the socially democratic Vienna revue "Der Kampf" from the year 1915. Challenges of the antimilitarist international education and a peaceful coexistance of national appears very topical today, especially so far the last period before the the World War I and the period during that war are in question.