The study deals with the antagonisms of the „old school“ and the „new education“ in the marxist views of education before the year 1917. Especially German (K. Zetkin) and Russian (V. I. Lenin, N. K. Krupskaja) problematics are paid attention here, and that with the regard to their critics of the conditions of the school institutions in the period of the monopolitistic and imperial stadium of capitalism before world war 1, and to the searching for an adequate model of „the school of the future“ in conditions of a socialist society. Lenin’s views are are closer to the revolutionary reconstruction of the hitherto czar school, while N. K. Krupska’s opinions proceeding from the same alternative, incline to making use of some stimulations of the west-Europian „new schools“, country-houses of education, to Tolstoj's school at Jasna Poljana or the idea of a „free child’ of K. N. Ventzel. The searching for a model of a socialist school and marxist education in the first socialist state after the year 1917 is not only evidence of a great period in the history of the school and education but also of complicated relations between the theory in thehitherto development of the marxist views of education, and a revolutionary re-construction of the whole school-system in the czarist Russia, among the theory, practice and the educational politics. Another evidence is given by the development of N. K. Krupská, A. V. Lunačarskij’s, P. B. Blonski’s, S. T. Sacki’s and later N. S. Makarenko’s views and opinions.