In the essay the author proceeds from the fact that at the time present the pedagogical sciences find themselves in new situations. The pedagogical knowledge is always more becoming an integral part of the complex system of the socially scientific knowledge. All the items of that knowledge line up the disciplines which partake in the solving of the problems of the man. The questions concerning the scientific character of pedagogics have become acute. Through concrete materials the study gives evidence that thinking about pedagogics as a science is contradictional being moved from racionality expressed by paradigmas of the positivist researches of educational phenomena to the anti-intellectualism and irrational feature of the anti-pedagogics. In the marxist pedagogics the theoretically methodological problems area is being broadened. A deeper attention must be paid to the solving of the relations of getting to know and the evaluating in the pedagogics, of laws and values, values and norms, to the problems of the elucidating and comprehending, to the questions of the interpretation in the pedagogics.
Further on questions of the philosophical conception of the man, its methodological consequences for the advance of the pedagogical theory are analyzed, as especially actual ones. The third range of questions that are analyzed in the study is the task of a science, the pedagogics in our case, in the society, and its influence on the humane society.