In the introduction the author clears up the up-to-date methodological approaches in the cognitive psychology 'yhich today belongs to the most influential conceptions on the all-world scale. In our country increased efforts to exploit the cognitive psychology and cognitive sciences in general appear as well. The ®uthor draws the reader’s attention to elementary conceptional problems of the "'estern cognitive psychology such as e. g. obscurities in the relations between the concepts „psychic reflex“ and „information" „consciousness“ and „unconsciousness", in the research methodology, etc.
The author gives reasons for the necessity of a new theoretical synthesis of both foreign theoretical extensive experimental works and his own long-term researches in the field of cognitive processes and the cognitive development. He suggests five general psychological categorial complexes as a starting-point for this synthesis (the category of activity, that of reflexes activity, of the social contacts etc). He breaks up the reflex into the epistemic reflex and the constructive one; he enlightens the task of anticipation when regulating one*s own activities (e. g. expecting success or fear of failure). In connection with this he analyses the processual and active approaches in the cognitive development of the man. The views presented here make the startingpoint for an analysis of creative thinking of both children and adults which is innerly related to the socially conditioned values orietation. — In the conclusion the author points at a possibility of elaborating models for the creative (heuristic) thinking.