The goal of the study is to emphasize the respect to the personal approach to the educational process. Concretely the matter is to make interaction processes (1) optimalize the acquiring the educational tasks and at the same time (2) support the constitution and the developing of the pupil as a personality — subject.
The interaction is influenced by a number of factors. From those tied up to the teacher’s personality and his activities especially the following phenomena are emphasized here: the teacher’s cognitive complexity, his interpretational aims and his attitudes (e. g. the pygmalion effect, preferencial attitudes, his concepts of a successful pupil including), and the style characteristic of the teaching.
As for the factors tied up to the pupil phenomena of developing activation dispositions as well as those causing supressing and defensive mechanisms, the causal self-attributions, syndroms of an unsuccessful personality and the taught powerlessness, the pupil’s interactive orientation at the teaching — and others are analyzed here. The interconnection of those factors elaborating the lerner’s complex charakter is emphasized here.
The complex of the interactional type between the teacher and the pupil is soled here independently. Beside disfunctional types (the so called reactive and personalities blocking interactions) that introduce negative influencing the pupils the so called declining spirals which deepen the tendencies to block the pupil’s active and achievements potentionals, the following phenomena are analyzed here: Types of tasks and non-personal orientations of interactions as well as those of tasks orientations which develop the learners’ personalities.
The final part of the study breaks up the five essential interactional functions consisting in the transmission of the teaching items and developing conditions of their transmissing. Also those functions are emphasized which consist in developing conditions for a more complex development of a personality’s social interacting.