The article is an integration of the results of the author’s works in respect to both our and foreign, especially the Soviet, pedagogics. On the principles of the marxist-leninist methodology it enlightens the elementary presuppositions of a scientific discipline in their branch, and that on the example of the special didactics dealing with the literary education. The following compounds belong to those presuppositions: a critical evaluation of its historical development, an analysis of the contemporary state of its object which is of a special importance as it enables its precise boardering, its outer linking to other scientific branches and disciplines, and the enlightening of its place in the classification of sciences, its inner structure, the bases of its methodology and terminology. By help of the analysis the principal elements of its object, that is the process of educating children through literature, were identified in the process of the literary education, and that as two qualitatively different kinds of interactions (the aesthetical interaction and the didactic one), further on the general laws of their relations, the main articles and steps of the process etc. Through a new conception of the foundations of a scientific discipline, and through an original concept of its object as a dynamic process of education through literature which corresponds to its objective conditions and manifold continuation, the author's works offer valuable stimuli for developing the special didactics as scientific disciplines.