The article deals with peace research (Friedensforschung) in Western countries and its culmination in peace education. Three kinds of peace education conceptions are discussed: 1. ethical, the most significant component of which is education aimed at international understanding, 2. psychological, where the cause of war is attributed to the psychical traits of people, particularly aggressiveness and prejudices, and peace education aims at eliminating these negative traits. 3. The latest conceptions are those of emancipation based on a critical theory of society (the Frankfurt School), where the elimination of wars is linked with removal of shortcomings in the social system and with the so-called emancipation. All the conceptions are critically evaluated. It is pointed out that in spite of the peace education’s honest struggle for peace, its weakness lies in the fact that it is not connected with the political struggle of the working people and that its theoretical basis — bourgeois science — leads to utopianism and to overestimating the possibilities of education. The significance of peace education, however, consists in rousing people’s thinking and feeling against violence and war, which is is good preparation for the struggle for peace.