In the thirties of the 19th century the first kindergartens in the Czech lands came into being as private charitable institutions brought to life by the needs of rising machinery-based capitalism. They were designed for the children of the poor, and their primary mission was a social one. The Na Hrádku kindergarten in Prague was founded in 1832 as a model institution for 300 children aged from 2 to 5. Thanks to its first teacher,). V. Svoboda, who in his work entitled Školka (Infant School) worked out a specific educational conception of pre-school education, including also the fundamentals of elementary instruction, the Na Hrádku Infant School became a place where future teachers were trained for work with the youngest children. By the year 1848 twenty Czech Infant Schools had been established. The development of preschool institutions in the Czech lands forms part of the progressive tradition, which is continued and is being further developed by the socialist pre-school education.