(CZ) Cesty k syntéze obsahu vzdělání
(EN) Ways Towards Curriculum Synthesis
Autor / Author: Pařízek, V.
Klíčová slova / Key words:
Increasing differentiation in knowledge and practice has been reflected in the development of education with greater intensity than the integrating aspects, and this involves a greater extent of the subject- matter. The number of subjects taught at elementary schools, secondary schools and higher education establishments has been increasing and together with this development the amount of the subject-matter has also been increasing. The curriculum synthesis and integrated teaching have become a pressing problem. Compared with former efforts in this respect the present time has introduced new aspects into the solution of these questions. Education in a developed socialist society is included in the nation-wide programme of combining the advantages of socialism with results of the Scientific and Technological Revolution and that of „bringing the social classes and groups closer together“. The all-in elementary nine-year school and the gradual integration of secondary schools are also factors eliminting the early influence of the division of labour. A new aspect is also greater occupational interdependence, co-operation of humanities and sciences as well as closer collaboration of the manual worker, technician and scientist Integrating elements have been on the increase even in the sciences which since the 17 th and 18th centuries have been organized into separate, independent disciplines.
The substance of curriculum integration is the creation of close contacts among subjects and various pupil activities. These consist in 1) horizontal integration:
a) the content of each subject is penetrated by pieces of knowledge, methods and viewpoints of other subjects (e. g. physics by peaceful uses of atomic energy), the subject of study is clarified from various viewpoints, in a more comprehensive manner and thereby to greater depth;
b) the curriculum makes use of general scientific conceptions, such as the information theory, the systems theory. The methodological basis for the inter-dependence of various subjects is provided by Marxist-Leninist philosophy. In different subjects pupils get to know the world’s material unity.
2) Education synthesis consists in vertical integration, i. e. in combining theoretical knowledge with practical pupil activities.
The educational practice is looking for a way to counter the isolation of knowledge and subjects by getting related subjects to be taught by one teacher, by using various forms of team teaching, by co-ordinating the subject-matter among subjects, by synthesizing subjects and themes, by merging subjects, by pupils’ practice.
A very useful contribution in this respect is a research now going on in economic subjects at vocational secondary schools specializing in economics.
One of the obstacles to curriculum integration is the excessive amount of subject- matter.
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