The article on the Topical Questions ofMoral Education gives an overall picture of the current state of the theory and practice of moral education of the youth in the socialist as well as in the capitalist countries. As regards the socialist countries a more detailed analysis is made of moral education problems in Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union. Increased interest in moral education (also involving a better political and work education) in a developed socialist society results from the basic needs for a faster internal development as well as from the ever sharper ideological struggle in the world, from international life and politics. As regards the capitalist countries, the situation of moral education, particularly in the USA, shows that the increased interest in moral education is an inevitable consequence of the general economic, social and moral crisis of the capitalist social system. But even if the increased interest in moral education problems in the socialist and in the capitalist countries is due to different, and often even opposite starting points, causes and purposes, we cannot fail to see that a considerable, significant part of the increased interest in moral education also has a common, equal or very similar denominator. This denominator (cause) is the new development of the productive forces in the highly developed countries of both social system, which is taking place in the present mighty scientific and technological revolution. General conditions and the way of human life, both at work and after work (in the increasing leisure time, in the environment) are changing very significantly (not only in the positive sense, but also in the negative sense!). All this results in the need to provide a better, all-round moral education of the youth, on a much higher level than hitherto. That is why all the developed countries of the world also take a greater interest in a more rapid development of the theory of moral education, as an ever more important component of presentday pedagogy.