The article deals with questions of conceiving a prospective model of literary education, which is conceived as an activity model proceeding consistendy from didactic principles and from the orientation towards pupil’s development. Creation of this prospective model was part of a research task assigned to the Comenius Pedagogical Institute of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, and the author of this article deals primarily with the methodological aspects of work on the task and its results.
He proceeds from some specific features of literary education in the system of education as a whole and points out how the conception of this subject, in the course of its development, was mosdy governed by non-didactic regards taken over from literary science, e. g. structuration of the teaching material based on literary history. He recalls some presentday findings of the theory of literary education, and comes to the conclusion that the prospective model of literary education must be built on an analysis of social demands on this subject, theoretical reflection and the didactic principle.
The author carried out an analysis of social demands as well as an experts’ research among writers, theoreticians, teachers and librarians, from the results of which he formulated a prognosis on the irreplaceability of literary education in the education system and its increasing significance. He formulated the basic demands on it and its functions, especially: lifelong stimulation of the pupil, relation ship to the pupil’s inner motivations and their development, increasing orientation of the pupil in literature, an increase in his skills and knowledge concentrating mainly on knowledge of a theoretical nature. As a result of an analysis of the existing models of literary education which he mentions (e. g. literary history, thematic- genre-like, readers’, exemplary and other models) he comes to the conclusion that none of them fulfils the function of literary education adequately, and none is conceived on the plane of the didactic system.
Therefore, on the basis of research analyses the author formulates the prospective model of literary education on the didactic principle of pupil orientation and development as a consistent activity model, in which the decisive role is played by the pupil’s activities, concentrated on cultural activities, the acquisition of knowledge and skills. Mastering the work of art and its interpretation is characterized as the most important activity, which has a central character. This activity is the axis of the pupil’s cultural development and of the educational impact on the pupil. It is linked with other activities which the author characterizes as informational, orientational activating and those in which the pupil asserts himself.
In conclusion the author shows how the solution of the activity model of literary education has consequences even for general questions of the theory of education, for problems which are being solved in this specific and limited case are not confined to literary education alone, but involve didactics in general, e. g. such problems as activating the pupil, activity conception of classroom instruction, relationship of the school and the extraclass influences on the pupil, relationship of character training and education in the subject taught, lifelong character and usability of the educational impact and other problems.