This study has, primarily, the character of a methoaological analysis of the problems connected with penetration of ideologically alien elements into our pedagogical theory and into the educational practice of the socialist school. The author is trying to find social as well as gnoseological roots of the penetration of ideologically alien elements, especially the penetration of pragmatic tendencies and principles, which the author has chosen to serve as an example.
The author analyses, first of all, the problems involved in general while pointing out the necessity of a permanent critical analysis of peagogical theory and educational practice. By analysing the exacerbation of the ideological struggle he demonstrates the validity of the law saying that the class enemy’s forces endeavour to penetrate the socialist society in the solution of such complex and singificant problems as education and its theoretical reflection in pedago^. Here the author proceeds from the tact that the penetration of ideolorically alien elements is conditioned by the social and gnoseological base still being found even in our country on the one hand, and on the other hand by the knowledge of the concrete manifestations of non-Marxist theories not being always very good; mereover, these non-Marxist theories arm themselves with socialterminology, striving for the support of prominent traditional educationists. In analysing the penetration of the elements of pragmatism the author deals especially with the influence of the everyday utilitarian manner of people’s thinking on their educational Views, on their educational practice as well as on the theoretical reflection of these views in education. The pragmatism of everyday life makes itself felt in attitudes and these attitudes are realised in activities and theoretical thinking. In this respect a thourough treatment of questions concerning the so-called way or life, the influence of the way of life on people’s way of thinking, the influence of everyday thinking on theoretical thinking etc. has proved to be a significant factor in the ideological struggle as well as in the struggle for the elaboration of a Marxist-Leninist methodology in pedagogy and practical educational work. Even through these problems are seemingly remote from the problems of pedagogy, they are problems which are directly involved in helping to solve questions concerning the development of pedagogical theory and the quality of educational practice. In this part ot the study the author draws on authors in the field of philosophy, authors who are working out general Questions of pedagogy and the ideological aspects of education.
In the next part of the study author goes on to analyse some more concrete questions in the solution of which there appear to be elements of pragmatism. This concerns especially questions^of dealing with formalism in upbringing and education and questions ot studying the part played by experience in the process of intensifying upbringing and education, but the auuior analyses here also questions of divorcing the process of evaluating results from the complex of the educational process and from solving the evaluation on the basis of practical criteria alone, questions of purposeful search for a direct relationship between a concrete means and its effect, disregard for the system character of the educational work. In connection with these questions the author goes on to analyse the efforts to solve the problem of the relationship between school and the life of society where solutions with unmistakable elements of pragmatism have apeared with great frequency. But he also analyses questions of teachers’ preparation for educational practice fi*om tne viewpoint of his problem. Here he refers above all to the insufficiency of emphasis on, and elaboration of, the category of goal in the practical preparedness or teachers for educational work and thus consequendy only the so-called „tinkering witn teaching methods“ instead of conceptual educational work of each teacher.
The analysis as a whole represents an analysis of both real and potential dangers. It is focused on the roots of these real and potential deformations. The purpose of the article is to l^h lig h t the danger and help to avoid it. Tlie article proceeds from the fact that progress in pedagogical theory requires also continual critical reappraisal if both the theory proper and the educational practice.