Education as one of the fundamental and essential phenomena of social reality and as any other phenomenon of the material world is causally conditioned. The whole system of its aims, means, external and internal conditions is realized in causal relationships and contexts. A causal analysis allows the interpretation of an educational phenomenon or process only in the basic, elementary relationships and presumptions. It says nothing about such phenomena as value, intention, goal, decision- making, freedom, choice, responsibility etc. It is just for this reason that in the field of pedagogy, too, in order to make a deeper analysis of human behaviour it is necessary to use, as the most general presumption, also finality, which evaluates the means in relation to the goal. The viewpoint of the dialectical unity of causality and finality is of fundamental significance also for the solution of some questions of the methodological profile of Socialist pedagogy.