This article appraises the articles about the content and methods of educational work at the General Education School, more especially at the Basic School, which in the years 1960 and 1961 appeared in the periodical "Pedagogika". The author does not conlude the discussion, but rather brings some new suggestions for a critical exchange of opinions.
The author says it is necessary to look into the substance of education and the viewpoints for judging education of the youth and of the working people in the period of building up an advanced socialist society, in the period of transition to a communist society.
The importance of education in the socialist and communist societies is growing proportionately to the consistency with which spontaineity and fortuity in the life of society are replaced by tenacity of purpose and consciousness; the more the work, behaviour, and acts of the individual, and the guidance and development of society are based on profressive science and art, the greater the importance of education. The quality and quantity of education also changes. The education of every member of society is extended by the knowledge of scientific fundamentals of production, the knowledge of the most important branches of production, by the skillè to handle the commonest tools and machines, by the basic technical education, by the basic instruction in scientific communism, economics, Marxist philosophy and ethics, by the knowledge of the new fields of art (e. g. film ). The extent of education also changes. Compulsory basic education necessarily changes into compulsory secondary education. These changes must be accompanied by changes in the very process of education, which w ill be gradually organised more and more in agreement with Marxist gnoseology, psychology, and physiology.
The author traces in the articles reviewed the application of ideological and economic viewpoints as w ell as of technico-scientific, gnoseological, biological, psychological and pedagogico-historical viewpoints. As regards the ideological and economic viewpoint, he draws the attention to the handling of problems of training communist consciousness, and th6 question of complete secondary education for all the youth. He shows that education which is to results in communist consciousness must be based not only on the scientific world outlook, but must also comprise moral, aesthetic and physical education, education for work. It must definitely form the positive personality traits while constantly overcoming the bourgeois vestiges still surviving in the minds of the youth. In the educational process it must make use of all the sources of the pupil’s knowledge. He requires that the questions of basic education be judged in close connection with complete secondary education. After a detailed analysis of further viewpoint he concludes by analysing the pedagogical logic of educational processes, the basic of which is the aim of communist education. In this connection he shows that organisational foi>ms, methods and processes of instruction can only be judged in close connection with the aim and the content of instructjon, with constant attention being paid to the. interior and exterior conditions of this" process.