The author deals with the problem of forming collective relations among pupils. He proceeds from the analysis of the literature concerned as well as from present-day educational practice and points out the lack of clarity in questions concerning collective relations and their formation. First of all he makes clear the substance of these relations and attempts to classify them more accurately.
Relations in a collective have so far been divided into friendly relations and comradely relations. The author proposes to make this division more precise by classifying the relations into those based on the personal choice of the partner (personal selective relations) and those resulting from the faction in a social group (functional relations).
This division of collective relations underlines two substantial factors: on the one hand the society, which organizes or compels the individual to be organized to fulfil a certain task, on the other hand the individual, who chooses from his surroundings, as far as he has a chance to, according to his inclinations. And it is the social factor that, according to the author’s findings, is decisive or the formation of collective relations.
The author sets himself the task to find out, by means of a research, how, in relatively favourable (but not the best) conditions of the school, collective relations, collectivist in their content, are being formed; he gives a survey of the research methods used and quotes examples of his research work together with the conclusions arrived at.
On the basis of a long-term research into two collectives of Senior High School pupils (two parallel classes of Selective Technical High Schools) the author comes to the conclusion that functional relations play a decisive role in the formation of collective relations and determine, by their collectivist content, a correct development of personal selective relations in a collective.
While personal selective relations have a tendency to develop spontaneously, functional relations require educational guidance of an educator. His influence is to be such as to promote the development of both personal selective and functional relations in desirable harmony. Even if in the moral sense functional relations cannot be placed above the personal selective relations, it is necessary to admit that functional relations play a decisive educational role.
The author derives from these findings the following methodical approach in the formation of collective relations: In the present formation of personal selective as well as functional relations in a collective, the educator uses the functional relations as a regulator of the personal selective relations.