In the spirit of the principle of bringing school close to life, the new conception of the Russian language teaching at the Basic Nine-Year School lays stress on the practical mastery of the language, i. e. the pupil should attain the required standards of basic language skills in reading, writing, speaking, and understanding speech. Therefore the content of the new conceptions of the teaching of Russian is handling the question of a correct relationship between language means and language skills, and the problem of using the pupils’ mother tongue appropriately, which consists in proceeeding froni the forms of work with translation to forms of work without translation in understanding and speaking Russian, and the removal of excessive stress on theory and grammar. Besides the language aspect the new conception emphasizes the educational aspect, i. e. the ideological, ‘moral, emotional, and aesthetic education and the development of the pupil’s powers of reasoning. The new conception stresses the effective kinds of work, the use of visual aids and modern apparatures. The implementation of this conception will require the making of new curricula and textbooks, a better and more cosistent care for the preparation of teachers as regards their language as well as methodical training, and it will also require full support to be given to the Creative initiative of teachers.