In the first part of the study the author analyses some fundamental methodological principles of the pedagogical science and comes to the conclusion that it is necessary to elaborate, more than has been done so far, the questions concerning a) the perspectives of the scientific work, b) the concetration on a basic synthetic evaluation of present-day problems c) the complex character of research. These ±ree principles are organically connected and are to contribute to a dialectical way of research into the pedagogical process from its various aspects. The present cultural revolution, deeply affecting the very substance of education, brings to the fore certain problems, in the handling of which pedagogical psychology has two basic tasks: a) to investigate how the changes in a Socialist society entering the stage of building Communism and the changes in our educational system affect the formation of ± e personality of both pupil and adult; b) to investigate the psychological aspects of the pedagogical processes in the new type of school; this psychological analysis, together witji gnoseological analysis, is to contribute to the prefection of content as well as methods used in education and instruction.
The bulk of the study consists in the analysis of viewpoints necessary in investigating learning as the basic category of education and instruction. The problems involved in learning form at the same time an important branch of general, genetic and pedagogical psychology. The author is using the dialectical method in analysing the concept of learning, i. e. he tries to reveal different qualitative standards and the corresponding aspects of investigating the character of learning. He therefore discards attempts trying to explain learning by only one or two principles as was done by non-dialectical psychological trends (e. g. behaviourism, gestalt psychology etc.).
The physiologico-psychological genetic aspect is regarded as the starting point. According to this aspect, besides the general and at the same time genetically primary principles of learning, it is necessary to take into account the developing, qualitatively different levels of learning. What is important here is the dialectical conception of determinism, which helps to clarify the character of interaction between pupil and teacher in the educational and instructional process.
The learning of man is a social act, in which, in the course of ontogenesis social experience is acquired. This involves the necessity for gnoseological analysis of learning ; from the viewpoint of gnoseology learning is a special form of cognition and is subject to the principles and contradictions set forth by gnoseolo^ in respect of the character of cognition. Learning, as a pedagogical category is thus subject to specific pedagogical laws and contradictigns resulting from these processes going on under intentional educational conditions (rationalization of instruction, contradiction between the logical ands the psychological, etc): the psychological bases of dialectically joining physical and mental work in education and instruction, and the questions concerning the formation of active knowledge, are dealt with in detail. The aspect of dialectical unity of the individual and the collective requires special attention. This aspect includes the view of both the vertical individual development and the horizontal view of collective and dynamic relations of individually variable pupils.
The above study does not exhaust the basic aspects and their dialectical relations completely. It does show, however, that only the dialectical method of investigating the character of learning can contribute to a scientific control of the educational and instructional process.