The author analyses the pedagogical and the psychological consequences of the new system of educational condition» created by the present cultural revolution in the Czechoslovak Republic. After an analysis of the economic and social causes of the one-sidedness in the development of the p upil’s personality in class society and of bourgeois pedagogical, psychological, and philosophical theories, the author passes to the analysis of the principle of the many-sided development of the personality in socialism. There he concentrates, above all, on problems of education, activity, and creativeness.
In the second part of his study the author points out those educational, instructional, and teaching rules which contemporary psychology has ascertained, and which are in connection with the problem of uniting the pupils’ instruction at school with manufacturing work. In knowing these psychological laws he sees the means for reaching a many-sided development of the pupils’ personalities. Then he deals with the question of the part the child’s activity holds in its education and intellectual development, and' explains the dialectical correlations between notions and motions.
In the last chapter of his paper the author studies those rules whose knowledge is for the pedagogue a means for educating active and independent pupils. He shows that the definition of the task of the new polytechnical school giving the pupil instruction and teaching him how to work must, besides other things, take into consideration many psychological rules; further he draws attention upon some of the laws the pupils create when connecting various notions and, above all, upon the recognizing of connections (relations), and upon the part taken by the motorious activity. In the end he argues that the development of an active and independent pupil asks for the study of the active side of the processes through which knowledge is gained, and for the utilisation of the result of this study in teaching and educating. The author, when analysing the problems decided upon, shows the perspectives of further research in connexion with the research work done by the Institute of Child Psychology.