The basic thesis of the author is that education is never a mechanical process, but always a social one, in which the relations between the educator and the person being educated make one of the determining forces of the educational process, one factor of education.
In a detailed analysis of the content of the teacher’s relations to his pupils there appear, first of all, the so-called o ffic ia l or institutional relation s, which consist in the teaching, examining, and marking activities of the teacher. A great wealth of relations of a positive as well as negative character do actually arise from the implementation of the teacher’s official duties within the framework of school as an institution.
The other category of relations is formed by the so-called personal relations of the teacher to his pupils, which arise on the basis of co-operation between the teacher and the pupils when fulfilling the working tasks set by the school, then on the basis of the teacher’s personal interest in the personality of the pupil and on the basis of the teacher’s emotional approach to his pupils. Even though official relations are of primary importance within the framework of school education, yet educational processes at school can never get along without personal relations, whether it be in the positive or negative sense of the word.
Pedagogical effects of the teacher’s relations to his pupils appear most strikingly especially in the sphere of the child’s adaptation to the social conditions of life, then in the sphere of teaching and in the sphere of ideological and character shaping of the child. As the relations of the teacher to the pupils prove to be a powerful educational factor, it is necessary for teachers to handle them correctly and in a planned manner so as to achieve the required educational results.