Pedagogy is developing as one of the social sciences. What is becoming topical in connection with its further development is the solution of methodological problems involved in the relationship of methodological problems involved in the relationship of empiricism and theory in pedagogical researches. In her study the author analyses concrete manifestations of the dialectical unity of empiricism and theory the specific features of the empirical and theoretical planes of scientific search for knowledge in pedagogy. She does not analyse the problems concerned in an abstract way, but she does so in close relation with the new tasks assigned to science by the Czechoslovak educational system. In the autor’s opinion, a deeper study of these methodological problems contributes to increasing the interpretative, transformative and prognostic functions of pedagogy, and to deepening the unity of pedagogical theory and practice.