Growing interest in the systemic conception of the Marxist theory of education has been aroused not only by viewpoints of the general theory of systems and cybernetics, but is also based on Makarenko’s ideas about the inefficiency of any educational medium applied in isolation and then on the conclusions drawn from Pavlovian physiology. Education, which can be understood as a unity of two systems (i. e. social and individual systems), aims at integrating environmental and institutional influences into a single formative system. The socialist profile of people is not formed automatically as a result of the impact of objective conditions and active participation of people in socialist construction, but a decisive part is played by subjective factors. Communist education is a complex, dynamic and polystructural system, which on one level represents the dialectical unity of the basic functional elements — conditions, aim, content, means, the results required and real results, object and subject — and on another level one must also see its structure of content, the dialectical unity of its components. The author also speaks about the uniform system of intellectual and moral education within the framework of communist education.