This study is devoted to the current methodological problems of didactics. It explains the heuristic significance of the Marxist-Leninist world outlook in the didactic phenomena cognition process. It deals with questions concerning didactics as a subject, which, together with the developing practice, differentiates itself internally and even creates new relationships to the other sciences. It points out the significance of the categories of materialist dialectics for the deep interpretation of the teaching process. It analyses the consequences of modern sciences and their methods for the development of pedagogical thinking on its different planes.