The author discusses first of all the conception of secondary education of working people. The role played by adult education is becoming more and more a significant instrument for achieving political aims on an international scale. The unity or disunity or contradiction in ideological views is reflected in educational aims, too. If we analyse each stage of education from the point of view of philosophy, pedagogy, biology, psychology, sociology and economics, the aims of adult education prove to be more real and more concrete. Then the author deals with present-day partial aims in the studies for working people. The quantitative change in the structure of the working class and the peasant class is closely connected with the change in people’s consciousness — and a change in people’s consciousness depends on the conditions of their social existence. An important task of the schooling of working people is, in the author’s opinion, to provide for an ever-increasing number of qualified workers and outstanding specialists for various branches of the national economy and culture. Then the author mentions the relationship between general education and specialist training, calls for continuous adaptability of the working people, preventing the rapid loss of qualification of women and the like. He deals with the specific features of adult education and its relation to the other forms of education and training. E. g. working people’s attitude to the system of learning and its content is rather different from that of full-time pupils. Coming to concrete education, we can proceed in two ways: 1. start from the structure of human personality whose individual aspects we want to develop, 2. take the content of education as the basis, determined from the viewpoint of social existence and social consciousness. The author mentions the theory of basic learning, appropriate subject- matter, activity of pupils etc. Then he deals very briefly with teaching methods. In conclusion he recommends an experimental verification of aims, means and methods before they are introduced in other schools.