This article gives an account of the results of the first stage of a long-term research in the field of the psychology of pupils’ capabilities. Amthauers 1st test was used to examine 220 pupils in 8th-year classes of various types of Prague schools (ordinary, language and mathematical types). The data acquired were subject to a factor analysis. An attempt is made in this article to interpret the individual factors. The data obtained as well as the interpretation will be verified in the next stage of the research and will be supplemented by other research methods.