This paper is divided into two parts. In the first part, which is the longer one, the author deals with the theory of decision making processes. He recalls the history of researches into decision making (contributions made by psychology and cybernetics) and recommends that decision making processes should be dealt with in pedagogy too. As a criterion of decision making processes the author adopts the degree to which the probability of the result is known (decision making in cases of certainty and risk). With certain modifications he accepts the decision making model of I. D. J. Bross and deals, in greater detail, with its individual components (input data, prediction system, system of value, criterion of decision making, decision). In the second part of the paper the author comes to the conclusion, on the basis of an analysis of the teacher’s activities, that decision making is a functional unit of the teacher’s instructional activities, that it is part of the educational process. This hypothesis is In keeping with the results arrived at in the study of teaching algorithms of L. N. Landa and in the inquiry into the conditions of learning as made by R. M. Gagn and also with the conclusions reached by V. M. Gluskov and others when analysing the theoretical questions involved in 'introducing computer- assisted instruction.