The author of this article proceeds from the fact that the Elementary School does give all children the opportunity of the same basic education, but this basic education is minimal rather than optimal. And since it does not create suitable conditions for its attainment, many pupils do not reach even this minimal basic education and leave the Elementary School without ever getting to the higher classes. It is therefore necessary to build up a school not suffering from these shortcomings and providing the children with maximal education in accordance with the requirements of a developed socialist society. On the basis of researches and analyses of the systematic out-of-school education of pupils at experimental schools, the author makes some recommendations for a new conception of the Elementary School. Socialist realism rejects one-sided intellectualism, the formalistic system of classroom instruction based on memorizing. The socialist school must, therefore, develop the individual abilities of pupils much more than it has done so far, and the focus of school life must be transferred from the competitive appraisal by means of marks and grades to a noble emulation of pupils in useful and creative activities. A developed socialist society needs and makes full use of every talent and must therefore aim more and more at developing pupils’ talents by means of an organized out-of-school education under expert guidance. The main task of the present time is to build up such a school system as would provide for the longest possible uniform basic education of the largest possible number of children and adolescents and would allow, at the same time, the maximal development of talents and an early preparation of specialists by developing their individual abilities and interests in accordance with the interests of the socialist society. To achieve this end, it is necessary for the Elementary School to extend its educational influence beyond classroom instruction in the form of a full-time educational system, properly respecting the collective education of pupils, which plays an irreplaceable role even in the full-time educational system.