The ideas in V. Bláha’s article are based on his Pr. D. degree thesis entitled ≫A Contribution to the Conception of Out-of- School Education with a View to Clarifying its Specific Features≪. Introducing the article, the author says that one of the serious problems making pedagogical work in the field of Out-of-School education little effective is the underestimation of the difference between the specific features of educational work with pupils out of school and the educational influence upon the pupils in classroom instruction. The author believes that one of the ways of contributing to the clarification of the specific features of out-of-school education and thereby increasing the effectiveness of educational work in this field is to try and make clear the basic inter-dependence and relationships between out-of-school education and the problems connected with children’s leisure time as a common social phenomenon. On the basis of theoretical studies and researches the author defines the notion and area of children’s leisure time, points out the historical context of the origins and the main line of development of out-of-school education based on the existence of children’s leisure time as a mass social phenomenon. He goes on to analyse various theoretical aspects of the leisure time category in relation to the problem of out-of-school education and to outline the main ideas of the new conception of the out-of-school education of Elementary School pupils, and he does this in the field of both theory and the organizational system of out-of-school education. In the field of theory the author clarifies, above all, the social necessity, the function and mission, the aims and tasks of out-of-school education as well as the problem of its content. Then he goes on to characterize the main points showing the specific differences and features of out-of-school education in relation to classroom instruction. The author holds the view that out-of-school education should not be looked upon as another form of the continuation of classroom teaching, nor should' it be understood in a narrow utilitarian way only as an extension of the educational process beyond the classroom, but simultaneously it should also be understood as purposeful creation of conditions and possibilities for the self-realization of pupils and for their active participation in diverse social activities in their leisure time and out of reach of the direct and immediate influence of their families, and for making them experience the joy of life and feel content and happy. Schools and various other social institutions and organizations should implement this orientation of out-of- school education in the form of pedagogically sensitive influence and by organizing various ways of children’s rest, recreation, entertainment, voluntary selfeducation and hobby as well as social activities. Out-of-school education is realized by means of a system of organizational links which, according to the author, include: some of the functions of the pupils’ self-government; the work of after-school centres and school clubs; after-school activities of educational institutions of the semi-boarding and boarding school type; some functions and activities of the children’s and youth organization; the activities of the Houses of Children and Youth; the activities and exploitation of other public educational institutions for children and the youth, of social organizations and institutions for adults if they work with children in their free time; also the press, radio, television, publishing and editing activities etc.; pedagogical utilization of the broader socialist environment of our life (parks, sports grounds, open spaces, grassland, children’s playgrounds, clubrooms etc.) This organizational system is understood by the author to be an open system of diverse conditions and opportunities for the richest possible realization of the diverse, many-sided and varied needs and interests of children as well as the needs and interests of society as a whole.