Working education is supposed not only to form a positive attitude of man to work and to provide man with the knowledge, skills, abilities and habits necessary to perform demanding and creative work, but also to orientate people in the world of work and occupations. The final aims of working education and vocational guidance will, to a great extent, be determined by the general requirements of the Project for the Further Development of the Czechoslovak Educational System, which was adopted by the highest Party and State authorities in 1976. Logical consequences thereof are: modernisation of working education and vocational guidance, prospective orientation, broader aims within the framework of the educational process both in and out of school. In the nearest future it will be necessary to deepen the polytechnical aspects of working education and professional orientation. A broader general and polytechnical character of education increases the pupils’ active share in deciding their future occupation (or branch of study) and will contribute to the decision-making being better-grounded. Professional and educational orientation at schools providing a general education, is to be based on the knowledge of long-term social prospects — a real basis can be provided by prognoses for a period of 10 to 15 years. Long-term professional orientation necessitates efficient utilisation of every subject for the provision of relevant information, for the guidance and development of specific professional interests. From this aspect of particular significance at elementary schools are the following subjects, workshop practice and mathematics. The orientation of pupils to skilled manual occupations is the key problem of vocational guidance. It is so not only because of the high proportion of pupils who are supposed to enter establishments for the training of skilled workers, but also because of the qualitative changes in these training centres, which are being placed on the same footing as the other types of secondary schools in a comprehensive system of secondary education. In fulfilling the prospective and current tasks of vocational guidance, the decisive pedagogical, organizational and co-ordinating role is played by vocational guidance officers. Vocational guidance at general (non-vocational) schools is a long-term, multidimensional process. In the present period its system is being stabilised while the theoretical conceptions and their practical realisation are gradually being brought into harmony. The promotion of purposeful, sophisticated, prospectively orientated vocational guidance, integrated into the educational process, is part of the programme for the realisation of further development of the Czechoslovak educational system.