The present-day state of foreign language teaching, the conception of the syllabi and teaching aids as well as the process of learning and teaching must be brought into harmony with the latest results of pedagogical researches and thus follow the call of the 15th Congress of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia for translating scientific research into practical use. The content of foreign language teaching as part of a general education can be divided into six basic components: communication, linguistics, life and institutions, ≫instruction≪ (our term), world outlook and general education (formation of more general abilities and qualities, the power of thinking, feeling etc.). An analysis of the latest draft syllabus has shown that the syllabus does not contain all these components, which is understandable because their delimitation depends on questions of educational aims being clarified on the general plane. Although the communication component, being what world literature is most interested in, has been paid greatest attention to, the narrowly practical bias must be revised and a proper place should be reserved for linguistic knowledge if we want to underline the formative aspect of the whole educational process. This is connected with what we call the ≫instructional ≪ component, the aim of which is to train the pupils in the skill of learning and finding the right sources for it. Even all the place of a further foreign language (i. e. in addition to Russian) is limited, pre-requisites could be created for pupils successfully to learn further languages on their own or in higher types of school. The syllabus is the original and basic guideline, it is therefore necessary to demand that its structure should be clear and its wording such as to help make it clear. Attention must be focused on aids (primarily on printed and sound textbooks} because, as a result of conservatism, they usually fail to apply the latest scientific knowledge even though it is embodied in the syllabus. In conclusion, conditions for improving the situation are dealt with: the necessity of elaborating the aims and its component before starting to work on the syllabi and of co-ordinating the production of teaching aids in such a way as to make their interdependence obvious and usable, e. g. printed textbooks accompanied by tapes together with visual materials.