The author chronologically show how the system of study courses for working people in general, and at vocational schools in particular, has developed into a significant institution of social life in Czechoslovakia. After an analysis of the situation, the first basic decisions were made in the years 1952—1954, followed by seeking new ways and by accepting a number of modifying and supplementing norms. It was not only the conception that met with great problems but also the realization of the study courses for the working people. The author submits the latter to a detailed analysis, and that from the quantitative viewpoint as well. He also gives evidence of the increasing effectivity of this form of studies in recent years, during which also the theory of adult education has been systematically developed. Great attention to education has always been paid by the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia. It was on its stimulus that a project has been elaborated of a further development of the Czechoslovak educational system, one chapter of which concerns adult education. The realization of the project will make use of the rich experience with the study courses for working people, of the developed theory, as well as of the international co-operation between the socialist countries.