The great social changes connected with the victorious Great October Socialist Revolution produced the requirement to form socialist man in the U. S. S. R., at the same time necessitatin g the logical need to c re a te a new educational system, Gommunist upbringing and education. The vigorous economic and social development led to a g re a t upswing of Soviet Marxist pedagogy. This was inspired by requirements emerging in the building of a socialist society, and showed itself in the developing of pedagogic disciplines not yet existing in bourgeois s cien ce or lying on the very marging of its interest. Belonging among such disciplines is also the theory of education. The author discusses the development -of this discipline from the viewpoint of the needs of educational p ra c tice , wheth er it was unity between upbringing and education, education to collectivism, educational utilization of work, o r the ideological and political education in p ostwar years. Until the sixties, the theory of ed uca tion had paid g r e a te r attention to the solution of individual problems; a t the present time, however, we can see a marked con cen tra tion on questions of a methodological ch a r a c te r with the aim to solve questions of educational p ra ctice on a qualitatively higher level, in a c co rd ance with the requirements of the developing society. By introducing universal (h igh e r) secondary education, the Soviet government and the Communist Party of the Soviet Union made the theory of education face a new requirement, namely to even better ensure the upbringing function in the entire teaching process. Laid down in the documents of the 25th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and being a joint task of pedagogic theory and educational p ra c tice, this requirement represents the c limax of the e fforts to achieve unity between upbringing and education.