Page: 138-161 Author: Mareš, J. Key words: assessment; individualized assessment; idiographic assessment; quality of life; education; educational research.
This overview article argues that traditional educational assessment and educational research relies on tools that are insufficiently sensitive to the individual feelings, values, and life conditions of the people responding to the questions asked. Yet it is on the basis of the results obtained through these tools that momentous decisions are taken about people. One possible solution is the kind of assessment that is being introduced into clinical psychology under the term „idiographic assessment“, and the assessment that is used in medicine and the psychology of health in investigations of people‘s quality of life under the term individualised assessment. The article summarises the main shortcomings of traditional assessment tools and with reference to the work of Hayens (2009) suggests four possible solutions: 1. to individualise the whole assessment strategy (to create entirely new assessment tools and mode of using them), 2. To individualise data using individual case material, 3. To individualise respondents - to give the traditional ques-tionnaire to very specific groups of people, 4. to individualise the mode of answering - to mo dify questionnaires by including blocks of questions that enable respondents to express their specific views. The study shows that the level of individualisation can be graduated in assessment tools. It illustrates this by using the examples of two typologies that classify tools for assessment of peoples quality of life (O‘Boyle et al., Dijkers, 2003). It presents eight types of tool as examples of individualised as-sessment: Cantril‘s ladder scale, the specific exploitation of Q-methodology, the SQLP
- Subjective Quality of Life Profile, SEIQOL - Schedule for Evaluation of Individual Quality of Life, SMiLE - Schedule for Meaning in Life Evaluation, QOLAP - Quality-of-Life Appraisal Profile, the Duggan and Dijkers qualitative method, and CMMBS - Cognitive Map of Major Belief Systems. In concludions the author summarises the main advantages and disadvantages of individualised assessment. He emphasises that individualised assessment of quality of life could be an inspiration for individualised educational assessment.