The complexity of the transition of the teaching theory from the bourgeois and objectivist view of the teaching process to the Marxist-Leninist view has made itself felt also in the conditions of building Socialist education in Czechoslovakia. The search for new ways of approach to a scientific explanation of starting-point problems of the teaching theory in our country has been positively influenced by contributions of the Soviet pedagogical science, which quite naturally and regularly has developed new views of questions concerning the substance, the mission and the laws of the teaching process. As a result of a certain amount of conservatism, some traditional ideas and processes continue being applied in the teaching process, and they result in low efficiency of educational work even though quantitatively, under the conditions of Socialist construction, the educational system in Czechoslovakia has been developing with immense speed. Development in the past thirty years has shown that concentration on meeting the demand for an upward trend in education by means of organizational changes in the education system has not led to raising the quality of results attained by schools in their work. Consequently, attention is being transferred to problems of basic changes in the content and process of education. Coming to the forefront is the fundamental demand for structural changes in this field. New solutions are inevitable in such significant problems as the relationship of the scientific and didactic systems in the selection and arrangement of the educational content in the structure of individual subjects, defining the basis subject-matter from the viewpoint of differentiated educational content, pointing out qualitatively new features (productivity, dynamism, activity, purposefulness, creativeness, operational efficiency) as well as such questions as the potentialities and ways of a scientific management of the teaching process. They are the problems to which the interest of researchers into the theory teaching is also directed by conclusions of the plenary session of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia of July, 1973.